June 1, 2021No Comments

Instrumental use erodes sacred values

We recently came across Rachel Ruttan’s research on sacred values and the ways that people’s commitment to these can be eroded when they are invoked opportunistically. We were struck by the parallels between Rachel’s research and the research on intrinsic and extrinsic values upon which we draw, so we invited her to write a blog summarising the implications of her work. Rachel is an assistant professor at the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.

An increasingly popular narrative in the corporate and third sectors is the “business case” for social values. Businesses are increasingly aligning themselves with important social values, such as sustainability, diversity and inclusion, and community development, while many charities choose to highlight the economic case for social or environmental action. For companies, this is a win-win: the causes get supported and so does the company’s bottom line, while for charities, there’s a perception that public support for their cause may be most dependably built on economic arguments.

The impetus to state values has been especially salient of late. The murder of George Floyd in Minneapolis sparked protests demanding justice and support for the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. This has prompted many corporations to release statements about their commitment to racial equality. In just a couple of representative examples from North American companies, Mountain Dew stated that they were “committed to fueling what’s right as we seek to drive progress against the systemic racism and inequality faced by Black people in America,” and Cisco stated “we stand in solidarity with those taking action to eradicate systemic racism and inequality” (Ad Age Staff, 2020).

However, in our recent research, we have uncovered a negative downstream consequence of the business case for social values. We find that using these values primarily for self-interested purposes, such as profit maximization or reputation management, can ultimately undermine their special status and erode people’s commitment to them. 

Why might this be? Values such as sustainability and diversity are what is known in the literature as sacred values – those values that people state an unwillingness to trade off, especially in exchange for more secular values, such as economic considerations around profit and cost–benefit analyses. It would be unfathomable, for instance, to put a price on the value of a human life or one’s loyalty. When we link sacred values to profit motives, it sets a different norm for appropriate use of the values. These are values that we are supposed to pursue as ends in themselves and this is shifting how people might think about these values in consequential ways.

Across multiple studies, we have found that people exposed to more self-interested uses of sacred values not only demonstrated diminished regard for those values subsequently but were less willing to donate to causes that supported them. For example, a twitter social media post wishing “Happy Earth Day,” from NASCAR, the stock car racing organization, reduced people’s subsequent respect for the annual environmental protection event, compared to a similar post from a group dedicated to ecological conservation. In another study, participants were less likely to donate to an environmental cause after reading about a fictional report in which many organizations had launched pro-environmental campaigns in pursuit of profits. 

What do we do, then? It is of course important for more resources and awareness to be directed to these causes. We think a helpful starting place may be to keep the phrase “bottom line” away from discussion of our sacred values. For businesses, this means going further in “walking the talk”. A commonly leveraged example is that of Patagonia discouraging customers from purchasing replacements for its jackets, offering to repair their worn ones instead. When companies start to take on an actual cost to support these values, it sends a much stronger signal. For charities, it means being more consistent in connecting the social or environmental issues upon which they work to sacred values and to resist the temptation to reframe their campaigns in terms of other more instrumental values.

April 11, 20121 Comment

Are the values we instill in our children leading us towards a sustainable future?

This is a guest post by Tim Burns, Head of Waste Watch.

In 2009, the children’s marketing sector was worth £100bn - and it's still growing. A significant portion of this total is spent on food marketing, predominantly promoting energy dense, low-nutrient food and beverages - typically unhealthy for children, but marketed to exaggerate health claims - and messaging (often with the help of celebrities) to suggest popularity, performance and mood.

There is worrying evidence of the impact advertising can have on children's dietary behaviours. One study, for example, showed that children exposed to junk food advertising ate 45% more junk food than children not exposed during the trial[i]. Furthermore, the Hastings Review found evidence that advertising can have an effect upon the nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchasing behaviour and diet of children.

But can marketing influence beyond behaviours to our values and identity? Read more

March 28, 20121 Comment

Treating people as consumers boosts materialistic values

“One of the most profound changes in our modern vocabulary is the way in which ‘We the People’ are defined”, observes the academic David Rutherford. “Not so very long ago, we ‘pictured’ ourselves as citizens. … Today, we are most often referred to (and therefore increasingly inclined to ‘see’ ourselves) as consumers.”

Too true. There has been an inexorable rise in the use of the term ‘consumer’ over the past forty years – a stark trend evident in both newspapers and books. But whilst the rise of consumerism has been well-documented, evidence of its negative impacts have proven harder to pin down. Does it really matter that we’re all consumers now? Read more

December 12, 2011Comments are off for this post.

The High Price of Materialism

Tim Kasser is professor of psychology at Knox College, Illinois, and author of The High Price of Materialism. He has been of great help in developing the Common Cause work.

In this animation, produced for The Center for a New American Dream, Tim discusses how America's culture of consumerism undermines our well-being. When people buy into the ever-present marketing messages that "the good life" is "the goods life," they not only use up Earth's limited resources, but they are less happy and less inclined toward helping others. The animation both lays out the problems of excess materialism and points toward solutions that promise a healthier, more just, and more sustainable life.

 

October 25, 20112 Comments

Opening the ethical debates in advertising

We’ve suggested elsewhere that there are two broad categories of response to Common Cause.

The first is to focus on the implications for the campaigns and communications that we are already producing: how might we campaign on biodiversity conservation, or disability rights, or cancer research, while simultaneously helping to strengthen those values upon which systemic concern about these issues must come to be built?

The second is to ask: what might we begin to do collectively, across the third sector, to strengthen the cultural importance of intrinsic values and reduce the pervasiveness of extrinsic values? Here there are many opportunities for new joint campaigns. One of the most obvious – but it is only one – is on advertising.

There is persuasive evidence that advertising serves to reinforce the cultural importance of extrinsic values – and to undermine the importance that we place on intrinsic values. As such, it will operate to reduce public concern about a wide range of social and environmental issues. This is an effect which is likely to be further strengthened by the fact that advertising is so pervasive – we literally can’t avoid it; and by the fact that much of it is targeted at children – people who are likely to be more vulnerable to its influence on values.

PIRC and WWF-UK have today launched a report highlighting the evidence for the cultural impacts of advertising. George Monbiot has written about it here. And you can download the report below.

We’ll now be hosting a conversation – with people from the third sector and business alike – on the cultural impacts of advertising and possible responses. Do get in touch if you would like to be involved in this!

[wpfilebase tag=file path='reports/Think Of Me As Evil - PIRC-WWF Oct 2011.pdf']

©2018 - 2019 Common Cause Foundation

©2018 - 2019 Common Cause Foundation

©2018 - 2019 Common Cause Foundation

©2018 - 2019 Common Cause Foundation

©2018 - 2019 Common Cause Foundation

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